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Milani, M. Possamai and F. Cusack and P. Kosnac eds. Cox and A. Vladislav, I. Voyce, M. Possamai , J. Roose, S. Dagistanli and B. Kolig and M. Voyce eds. Bouma, G. Ezzy, A. Halafoff and A. Blasi and J. Roose, J. Mansouri ed. Cultural, Religious and Political Contestations. The Multicultural Challenge.
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Springer, Leiden: Turner, B. Possamai 'Introduction : legal pluralism and Shari'a' in Possamai, A. Turner, J. Dagistanli, and M. Hussain, J. Berger eds. Nixon, A. Weston, and A. Onnudottir, H, Possamai , A. Mansouri and V. Marotta eds. Cusack and Alex Norman eds. Sriprakash, A. Barbalet, A. Houtman eds. Religions of Modernity.
Lewis eds. Imtoual and B. As one of many examples of state modernization, this shows secularization and democratization as mutually reinforcing processes [ citation needed ] , relying on a separation of religion and state. In expressly secular states like India , it has been argued that the need was to legislate for toleration and respect between quite different religions,  and that the secularization of the West was a response to drastically violent intra-Christian feuds between Catholicism and Protestantism.
Some [ who? Considerations of both tolerance and autonomy are relevant to any secular state. John Sommerville outlined six uses of the term secularization in the scientific literature. The first five are more along the lines of 'definitions' while the sixth is more of a 'clarification of use': . Abdel Wahab Elmessiri outlined two meanings of the term secularization:. As studied by sociologists, one of the major themes of secularization is that of "differentiation"—i.
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European sociology, influenced by anthropology , was interested in the process of change from the so-called primitive societies to increasingly advanced societies. In the United States, the emphasis was initially on change as an aspect of progress, but Talcott Parsons refocused on society as a system immersed in a constant process of increased differentiation, which he saw as a process in which new institutions take over the tasks necessary in a society to guarantee its survival as the original monolithic institutions break up.
This is a devolution from single, less differentiated institutions to an increasingly differentiated subset of institutions. Following Parsons, this concept of differentiation has been widely applied. Casanova also describes this as the theory of "privatization" of religion, which he partially criticizes.
At present, secularization as understood in the West is being debated in the sociology of religion. In his works Legitimacy of the Modern Age and The Genesis of the Copernican World , Hans Blumenberg has rejected the idea of a historical continuity — fundamental the so-called 'theorem of secularization'; the Modern age in his view represents an independent epoch opposed to Antiquity and the Middle Ages by a rehabilitation of human curiosity in reaction to theological absolutism.
Charles Taylor in "A Secular Age" challenges what he calls 'the subtraction thesis' — that science leads to religion being subtracted from more and more areas of life. Proponents of "secularization theory" demonstrate widespread declines in the prevalence of religious belief throughout the West, particularly in Europe. Demerath have countered by introducing the idea of neo-secularization, which broadens the definition of secularization to include the decline of religious authority and its ability to influence society.
In other words, rather than using the proportion of irreligious apostates as the sole measure of secularity, neo-secularization argues that individuals increasingly look outside of religion for authoritative positions.
Neo-secularizationists would argue that religion has diminishing authority on issues such as birth control , and argue that religion's authority is declining and secularization is taking place even if religious affiliation may not be declining in the United States a debate still taking place. Finally, some claim that demographic forces offset the process of secularization, and may do so to such an extent that individuals can consistently drift away from religion even as society becomes more religious.
This is especially the case in societies like Israel with the ultra-Orthodox and religious Zionists where committed religious groups have several times the birth rate of seculars. The religious fertility effect operates to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, and is amplified in the West by religious immigration. For instance, even as native whites became more secular, London , England, has become more religious in the past 25 years as religious immigrants and their descendants have increased their share of the population.
Christian Smith examined the secularization of American public life between and He noted that in a Protestant establishment thoroughly dominated American culture and its public institutions. By the turn of the 20th century, however, positivism had displaced the Baconian method which had hitherto bolstered natural theology and higher education had been thoroughly secularized. In the s "legal realism" gained prominence, de-emphasizing the religious basis for law. That same decade publishing houses emerged that were independent of the Protestant establishment.
During the s secularization extended into popular culture and mass public education ceased to be under Protestant cultural influence. Although the general public was still highly religious during this time period, by the old Protestant establishment was in "shambles". Key to understanding the secularization, Smith argues, was the rise of an elite intellectual class skeptical of religious orthodoxies and influenced by the European Enlightenment tradition.
They consciously sought to displace a Protestant establishment they saw as standing in their way. Annual Gallup polls from through showed that the fraction of American who did not identify with any particular religion steadily rose from At the same time, the fraction of Americans identifying as Christians sank from In Britain, secularization came much later than in most of Western Europe. It began in the s as part of a much larger social and cultural revolution.
Until then the postwar years had seen a revival of religiosity in Britain. Sponsorship by royalty, aristocracy, and influential local gentry provided an important support-system for organized religion. In coal-mining districts, local collieries typically funded local chapels, but that ended [ when?
This allowed secularizing forces to gain strength. Hinduism , which is the dominant way of life in India , has been described as a 'culture and civilisation of ancient origin' that is 'intrinsically secular'. One traditional view of Chinese culture sees the teachings of Confucianism - influential over many centuries - as basically secular.
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Chang Pao-min summarises perceived historical consequences of very early secularization in China:. The early secularization of Chinese society, which must be recognized as a sign of modernity [ All this simply means that the pursuit of wealth or power or simply the competition for survival can be and often has been ruthless without any sense of restraint.
It also rendered Chinese society much more egalitarian than Western Europe and Japan. Many countries in the Arab world show signs of increasing secularization. In Lebanon and Morocco , the number of people listening to daily recitals of the quran fell by half from to High living costs delay marriage and, as a consequence, seem to encourage pre-marital sex.
Even in countries in which secularization is growing, there are backlashes. For instance, the president of Egypt, Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi , has banned hundreds of newspapers and websites who may provoke opposition. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Secularization church property , Secularity , Secularism , and Secular disambiguation. Main article: Islam and secularism. Society portal.